Author(s)
Zhenglun Wei, PhD, Kevin K. Whitehead, MD, PhD, Reza H. Khiabani, PhD, Michael Tree, Elaine Tang, Stephen M. Paridon, MD, Mark A. Fogel, MD, and Ajit P. Yoganathan, PhD
Date
2017-05-01
Source
Ann Thorac Surg. 2016 May; 101(5): 1818–1825.

Background
It is known that respiration modulates cavopulmonary flows, but there is little data comparing mean flows under breath holding and free breathing conditions to isolate the respiratory effects, as well as effects of exercise on the respiratory modulation.

Methods
Real time phase contrast magnetic resonance combined with a novel method to track respiration on the same image acquisition was used to investigate respiratory effects on Fontan caval and aortic flows under breath holding, free breathing and exercise conditions. Respiratory phasicity indices based on beat-averaged flow was employed to quantify the respiratory effect.

Results
Flow during inspiration was significantly higher than expiration under the free breathing and exercise conditions for both inferior vena cava (inspiration/expiration: 1.6±0.5 and 1.8±0.5, respectively) and superior vena cava (inspiration/expiration: 1.9±0.6 and 2.6±2.0, respectively). Changes from rest to exercise in the respiratory phasicity index for these vessels further showed the impact of respiration. Total systemic venous flow showed no significant statistical difference between the breath holding and free breathing conditions. In addition, no significant difference was found between the descending aorta and inferior vena cava mean flows under either resting or exercise conditions.

Conclusions
This study demonstrated that inferior vena cava and superior vena cava flow time variance is dominated by respiratory effects, which can be detected by the respiratory phasicity index. However, the minimal respiration influence on net flow validates the routine use of breath holding techniques to measure mean flows in Fontan patients. Moreover, the mean flows in the inferior vena cava and descending aorta are interchangeable.

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